Satiety can be predominantly defined as the feeling of fullness and/or losing of hunger sensations after a meal. There are several determinants for appetite regulation, including food composition, digestion, gastric emptying, and nutrient absorption, which together impacting the postprandial satiety responses (Savastano et al., 2014).
Dietary Fiber (DF) comprises a variety of compounds that reach the colon undigested, including insoluble fibers (e.g. wheat bran), soluble fibers from oats and fruits, resistant starches and oligosaccharides (Savastano et al., 2014). DF may contribute in appetite control. Despite that, not all types of DF have the same satiety effect. This is due to characteristics of fiber such as viscosity, fermentability and solubility may affect appetite differently (Korczak & Slavin, 2018).
||Korczak & Slavin, 2018
- Higher dose of fiber such as oligofructose (16 g/day) is needed and for a longer duration (12-16 weeks) to detect differences in appetite and subsequent energy intake.
- Practical amounts of fructooligosaccharides, less than 10 g/day, generally do not affect satiety or food intake.
- 40 college age females received either a fiber drink with 16 g of Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) in 330 ml water or placebo. On the 8th day of the study, appetite sensations were assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) along with food intake.
- On the 8th day, the fiber group reported lower ratings for hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption with significantly higher ratings for satisfaction and fullness.
- In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 16 g/day of ITF fiber in the morning was found to reduce hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption, and to increase fullness and satiety in acute settings, leading to reduced food intake at lunch.
||Heap et al., 2015
- A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption.
- The preload breakfast included 100g vanilla yogurt with and without) 6 g inulin: yogurt-inulin (YI) & yogurt-control (YC).
- Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min.
- There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC area under the curve (AUC) appetite ratings or energy intakes.
- However, 8-d consumption of YI vs. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes.
- Therefore, the addition of 6g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption.
||Barone Lumaga et al., 2012
- In this study the satiating capacity of 3 beverages containing 3 g barley β-glucan, or 2.5 g dietary fibre (DF) from fruit, or without DF (control) was evaluated.
- The beverages containing DF increased fullness and satiety over 3 h post-breakfast, but only the β-glucan-enriched vs. the control significantly reduced energy intakes by 18% at lunch and 40% over the rest of the day.
- A sucrose-sweetened beverage providing 3 g barley β-glucans can control food intake by modulating PP response and it can even reduce 24 h energy intake. Ghrelin suppression by fruit dietary fibre and mixed sugars was not sufficient to significantly reduce food intake compared to the control.
- 3.0 g of β-glucan supplemented in 250 mL beverages significantly increased satiety compared to control beverages
||Lyly et al., 2010
- A total of 29 healthy volunteers, age 19-39, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m(2) participated in this study.
- Measurement of subjective perceptions (satiety, fullness, hunger, desire to eat something/the sample food and thirst) was performed during a 180-min period after ingestion of the sample.
- There were altogether 6 samples:
- 2 beverages without fibre at energy levels 700 and 1,400 kJ;
- 2 beverages containing 5 or 10 g oat DF (2.5 and 5 g oat beta-glucan, respectively) at energy level 700 kJ,
- 1 beverage containing 10 g oat DF/1,400 kJ
- 1 beverage containing 10 g enzymatically treated oat DF with low viscosity at energy level 700 kJ.
- Each beverage portion weighted 300 g. The order of the samples was randomised for each subject and evaluated during six separate days. The results are reported in three sets of samples: ‘fibre’, ‘energy’ and ‘viscosity’.
- Addition of an oat ingredient rich in beta-glucan and high viscosity of beverages enhance post-meal satiety induced by beverages, regardless the amount of ingested fibre or energy.
Barone Lumaga, R., Azzali, D., Fogliano, V., Scalfi, L., & Vitaglione, P. (2012). Sugar and dietary fibre composition influence, by different hormonal response, the satiating capacity of a fruit-based and a β-glucan-enriched beverage. Food Funct., 3(1), 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1039/c1fo10065c
Heap, S., Ingram, J., Law, M., Tucker, A., & Wright, A. (2015). Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial. British Journal Of Nutrition, 115(2), 262-270. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114515004432
Korczak, R., & Slavin, J. L. (2018). Fructooligosaccharides and appetite. Current Opinion In Clinical Nutrition And Metabolic Care, 21(5), 377-380.
Lyly, M., Ohls, N., Lähteenmäki, L., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Liukkonen, K., Karhunen, L., & Poutanen, K. (2010). The effect of fibre amount, energy level and viscosity of beverages containing oat fibre supplement on perceived satiety. Food & Nutrition Research, 54(1), 2149. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v54i0.2149
Salmean, Y. A. (2017). Acute fiber supplementation with inulin-type fructans curbs appetite sensations: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Food & Nutrition Research, 61(1), 1341808. https://doi.org/10.1080/16546628.2017.1341808
Savastano, D., Hodge, R., Nunez, D., Walker, A., & Kapikian, R. (2014). Effect of two dietary fibers on satiety and glycemic parameters: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory study. Nutrition Journal, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-13-45