Kindly provide journals & studies to support the facts of vitamins & minerals that aiding for energy, fatigue & cognition functions


Energy is associated with the feelings of well-being, stamina and vitality that allow us to undertake daily physical or intellectual activities and social relationships. In opposition, fatigue is often described as a sense of energy depletion, which often resulted in decrease of cognitive performance (Tardy et al., 2020).

Here are some scientific evidences that adequate intake of vitamins and minerals will help you feel more energized and motivated to achieve your health goals.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
  • Thiamine will be converted to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme used for energy metabolism (Martel et al., 2020).
  • Thiamine intake (10mg of thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulphide) during exercise positively benefits carbohydrate metabolism in a way that will decrease lactate concentration, ammonia concentration, and anti- fatigue (Choi et al., 2013).
  • Thiamine administration improves cognitive function in neurodegenerative diseases (Costantini et al., 2013; Lương & Nguyễn, 2013).
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
  • Riboflavin is further metabolized to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (Suwannasom et al., 2020).
  • As cofactors in energy metabolism (Suwannasom et al., 2020).
  • Muscle pain and soreness ratings during and immediately after the exercising were found to be significantly lower than treatment group that received 100mg riboflavin before and during prolonged exercise (Hoffman et al., 2017).
  • Cognitive function among middle-aged and elderly people shown to be improved by increasing daily dietary intake of riboflavin and unsaturated fatty acid (Tao et al., 2019).
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
  • Crucial in oxidative reactions for energy production as well as regulating biological functions, including gene expression, cell cycle progression, DNA repair and cell death (Gasperi et al., 2019).
  • Dietary niacin may protect against Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline (Gasperi et al., 2019).
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
  • Part of coenzyme A that requires in chemical reactions that generate energy from food, synthesis of essential fats, cholesterol, steroid hormones (Riordan et al., 2012) and synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Tardy et al., 2020).
  • Vitamin B5 deficiency could lead to neurodegeneration and dementia in Huntington’s disease (Patassini et al., 2019).
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
  • Involved in the metabolism of many substances and energy in the body (Yan, 2020) and is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters in the brain (Stover & Field, 2015).
  • Lower dietary intake of vitamin B6 (0.9–1.4 mg/day) at baseline predicted a greater-than expected rate of global cognitive decline in participants of aged 60–88 years, vitamin B6 may be an important protective factor for maintaining cognitive health on the basis of a mean dietary intake of 2.3 mg/day (Hughes et al., 2017).
Vitamin B8 (Biotin)
  • Key role in the energetic metabolism of all cells, including in brain and nerves and participates in the normal functioning of the nervous system (Harris et al., 2012).
  • Preliminary data suggest that high doses of biotin (100–300 mg/day) might have an impact on disability and progression in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (Sedel et al., 2015).
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
  • 180 subjects with mild cognitive impairment received folic acid (400 µg/day) for 2 years exhibited better cognitive performance (full scale and verbal intelligence, memory) when compared with the placebo-treated group (Ma et al., 2017).
  • In 73 thalassemic children aged approximately 10 years, folic acid supplementation (1 mg/day for 3 months) led to a reduction of reported fatigue perception (Tabei et al., 2013).
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
  • Essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production (O’Leary & Samman, 2010).
  • Deficiencies are associated with mental and cognitive impairment, such as irritability, memory loss, depression, and cognitive disturbances up to dementia (Hunt et al., 2014).
  • Long-term supplementation of daily oral 400μg folic acid + 100μg vitamin B12 promotes improvement in cognitive functioning after 24 months, particularly in immediate and delayed memory performance (Walker et al., 2011).
  • Injection of 100 mcg/ml vitamin B12 weekly after dialysis is effective in reduction of fatigue in hemodialysis patients (Tayyebi et al., 2013).
Vitamin C
  • Involves in central nervous system functions such as neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelin (lipid-rich (fatty) substance that surrounds nerve cell) formation and modulation of the autonomic nervous system which regulates involuntary physiologic processes such as heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (Travica et al., 2019).
  • Maintaining healthy vitamin C levels can have a protective function against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (Harrison, 2012).
  • High dose (10g) intravenous vitamin C proved to be safe and effective against fatigue (Suh et al., 2012).
  • Requires for energy production, oxygen transport and utilization, cellular proliferation, and pathogen destruction (Lynch et al., 2018).
  • Intake of 800 mg iron improved fatigue in iron-deficient, non-anaemic women with a good safety and tolerability profile (Krayenbuehl et al., 2011).
  • Treatment of anaemia with oral iron in primary-school-aged children and treatment of iron deficiency anaemia with parenteral iron in young children induce marked benefits on cognitive performance (Larson et al., 2017).
  • Deficiency is relatively common and may lead to a range of symptoms including loss of energy and fatigue (Outhoff, 2018).
  • There was a direct association between serum magnesium and cognitive functions, low magnesium concentrations were associated with a longer mean reaction time for a computer-based, self-administered test (Al-Ghazali et al., 2020).
  • Zinc supplementation (70mg/day) prevented fatigue and maintained quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on chemotherapy (Ribeiro et al., 2017).
  • Serum zinc levels (mean: 105.51±31μg/dL) are positively correlated with various aspects of brain cognitive function in young female students (Amani et al., 2019).



Al-Ghazali, K., Eltayeb, S., Musleh, A., Al-Abdi, T., Ganji, V., & Shi, Z. (2020). Serum Magnesium and Cognitive Function Among Qatari Adults. Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience, 12.

Amani, R., Tahmasebi, K., Nematpour, S., Nazari, Z., Ahmadi, K., & Mostafavi, S. (2019). Association of cognitive function with nutritional zinc status in adolescent female students. Nutrition, 21(2), 86-93.

Choi, S., Baek, S., & Choi, S. (2013). The effects of endurance training and thiamine supplementation on anti-fatigue during exercise. Journal Of Exercise Nutrition And Biochemistry, 17(4), 189-198.

Costantini, A., Pala, M., Compagnoni, L., & Colangeli, M. (2013). High-dose thiamine as initial treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Case Reports, 2013(aug28 1), bcr2013009289.

Gasperi, V., Sibilano, M., Savini, I., & Catani, M. (2019). Niacin in the Central Nervous System: An Update of Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications. International Journal Of Molecular Sciences, 20(4), 974.

Harris, J., Jolivet, R., & Attwell, D. (2012). Synaptic Energy Use and Supply. Neuron, 75(5), 762-777.

Harrison, F. (2012). A Critical Review of Vitamin C for the Prevention of Age-Related Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal Of Alzheimer’s Disease, 29(4), 711-726.

Hoffman, M., Valentino, T., Stuempfle, K., & Hassid, B. (2017). A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Riboflavin for Enhancement of Ultramarathon Recovery. Sports Medicine – Open, 3(1).

Hughes, C., Ward, M., Tracey, F., Hoey, L., Molloy, A., Pentieva, K., & McNulty, H. (2017). B-Vitamin Intake and Biomarker Status in Relation to Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults in a 4-Year Follow-Up Study. Nutrients, 9(1), 53.

Hunt, A., Harrington, D., & Robinson, S. (2014). Vitamin B12 deficiency. BMJ, 349, g5226-g5226.

Krayenbuehl, P., Battegay, E., Breymann, C., Furrer, J., & Schulthess, G. (2011). Intravenous iron for the treatment of fatigue in nonanemic, premenopausal women with low serum ferritin concentration. Blood, 118(12), 3222-3227.

Larson, L., Phiri, K., & Pasricha, S. (2017). Iron and Cognitive Development: What Is the Evidence?. Annals Of Nutrition And Metabolism, 71(3), 25-38.

Lương, K., & Nguyễn, L. (2013). The Beneficial Role of Thiamine in Parkinson Disease. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 19(7), 461-468.

Lynch, S., Pfeiffer, C., Georgieff, M., Brittenham, G., Fairweather-Tait, S., & Hurrell, R. et al. (2018). Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)—Iron Review. The Journal Of Nutrition, 148(suppl_1), 1001S-1067S.

Ma, F., Li, Q., Zhou, X., Zhao, J., Song, A., & Li, W. et al. (2017). Effects of folic acid supplementation on cognitive function and Aβ-related biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal Of Nutrition, 58(1), 345-356.

Martel, J. L., Kerndt, C. C., Franklin, D. S. (2020). Vitamin B1 (Thiamine). In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing.

O’Leary, F., & Samman, S. (2010). Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease. Nutrients, 2(3), 299-316.

Outhoff, K. (2018). Magnesium: effects on physical and mental performance. South African Family Practice, 60(4), 32-34.

Patassini, S., Begley, P., Xu, J., Church, S., Kureishy, N., & Reid, S. et al. (2019). Cerebral Vitamin B5 (D-Pantothenic Acid) Deficiency as a Potential Cause of Metabolic Perturbation and Neurodegeneration in Huntington’s Disease. Metabolites, 9(6), 113.

Ribeiro, S., Braga, C., Peria, F., Martinez, E., Rocha, J., & Cunha, S. (2017). Effects of zinc supplementation on fatigue and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer. Einstein (São Paulo), 15(1), 24-28.

Riordan, H., Mikirova, N., Taylor, P., Feldkamp, C., & Casciari, J. (2012). The Effects of a Primary Nutritional Deficiency (Vitamin B study). Food And Nutrition Sciences, 03(09), 1238-1244.

Sedel, F., Papeix, C., Bellanger, A., Touitou, V., Lebrun-Frenay, C., & Galanaud, D. et al. (2015). High doses of biotin in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study. Multiple Sclerosis And Related Disorders, 4(2), 159-169.

Stover, P., & Field, M. (2015). Vitamin B-6. Advances In Nutrition, 6(1), 132-133.

Suh, S., Bae, W., Ahn, H., Choi, S., Jung, G., & Yeom, C. (2012). Intravenous Vitamin C administration reduces fatigue in office workers: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 11(1).

Suwannasom, N., Kao, I., Pruß, A., Georgieva, R., & Bäumler, H. (2020). Riboflavin: The Health Benefits of a Forgotten Natural Vitamin. International Journal Of Molecular Sciences, 21(3), 950.

Tabei, S. M. B., Mazloom, M., Shahriari, M., Zareifar, S., Azimi, A., Hadaegh, A., & Karimi, M. (2013). Determining and Surveying the Role of Carnitine and Folic Acid to Decrease Fatigue in β-Thalassemia Minor Subjects. Pediatric Hematology And Oncology, 30(8), 742-747.

Tao, L., Liu, K., Chen, S., Yu, H., An, Y., & Wang, Y. et al. (2019). Dietary Intake of Riboflavin and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Can Improve the Multi-Domain Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations: A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study. Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience, 11.

Tardy, A., Pouteau, E., Marquez, D., Yilmaz, C., & Scholey, A. (2020). Vitamins and Minerals for Energy, Fatigue and Cognition: A Narrative Review of the Biochemical and Clinical Evidence. Nutrients, 12(1), 228.

Tayyebi, A., Savari, S., Nehrir, B., Rahimi, A., & Eynollahi, B. (2013). The effect of Vitamin B 12 supplemention on fatigue in hemodialysis patients. Iranian Journal Of Critical Care Nursing, 6(1), 39-48.

Travica, N., Ried, K., Sali, A., Hudson, I., Scholey, A., & Pipingas, A. (2019). Plasma Vitamin C Concentrations and Cognitive Function: A Cross-Sectional Study. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 11, 72.

Walker, J., Batterham, P., Mackinnon, A., Jorm, A., Hickie, I., & Fenech, M. et al. (2011). Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms—the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 95(1), 194-203.

Yamanaka, R., Tabata, S., Shindo, Y., Hotta, K., Suzuki, K., Soga, T., & Oka, K. (2016). Mitochondrial Mg2+ homeostasis decides cellular energy metabolism and vulnerability to stress. Scientific Reports, 6(1).

Yan, H. (2020). Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 Supplements for Athletes’ Functional Nutrition. Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutrición, 70(3), 679-687.